Milk quality and mastitis in Jimma, Ethiopia – Risk factors and constraints

Mastitis remains an economically important disease in the dairy industry worldwide. The general aims of this thesis are to investigate milk production, quality and consumption and to study the prevalence of mastitis and associated risk factors at herd, cow and quarter level in Jimma, Ethiopia.

Milk production, marketing, quality, consumption and its associated constraints in Jimma were investigated in four studies. First, 47 dairy farmers and 44 milk retailers were interviewed to gain a better understanding of dairy farming and marketing, and the associated constraints. Second, bulk milk samples (n = 188) were collected for four consecutive weeks to investigate milk quality (Total Bacterial Counts (TBC), Coliform Counts (CC), Somatic Cell Counts (SCC), and antimicrobial residues). Bulk milk samples from 32 farms, 46 milk retailers and the three local milk collection centers were collected to determine the presence of oxacillin susceptible and oxacillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus isolates. Finally, 208 adult inhabitants were interviewed to gain more insight into milk consumption and concerns of consumers.

The average dairy farm, which consisted of five lactating cows, produced 43 liters of milk per day and was owned by literate adults. Milk was sold to retailers (71 per cent) and directly to customers (25 per cent) without any quality control, whereas 4 per cent was self-con