The influence of vitamin D and antimicrobials (pheromonicin) in relation to the control of bovine mastitis

Bovine mastitis is one of the most common and costly diseases in the dairy industry. Its control relies on both antimicrobial and non-antimicrobial strategies. In this research, special attention has been given to vitamin D and a new antimicrobial, Pheromonicin-NM. The aim of this PhD thesis was to investigate the potential biological effect of vitamin D as a new prevention strategy, and the possibility of PMC-NM as a new therapy for bovine mastitis.


There are two common forms of vitamin D: vitamin D2 and vitamin D3. Both were reported to have immunomodulatory effects. Thus, first the effects of vitamin D on bovine mammary epithelial cell (MAC-T) proliferation and Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) invasion were investigated in vitro, and the differences between D2 and D3 compounds were compared. The results showed that although there are differences, both D2 and D3 compounds inhibit MAC-T cell viability and S. aureus growth, and reduce S. aureus adhesion and invasion into MAC-T cells. This study suggests that both D2 and D3 compounds may be potential in the defence against bacterial infection.

Then, the possible beneficial effect of vitamin D repletion on certain immune parameters of vitamin D depleted healthy dairy cows was investigated. The results showed that dietary vitamin D2 or D3 supplementation and sunlight exposure can increase plasma 25(OH)D levels of dairy cows from deficient to normal range. However, the tested immune parameters did not change in response to vitamin D repletion or difference in vitamin D sources, and the

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